Dual-Layer Heating Ventilation and Air-conditioning System (HVAC)

The dual-layer HVAC architecture is a simple HVAC architecture with dual airflow to allow independent airflow management in the upper and lower cabin of the vehicle and with limited air renewal from outside.

Upper cabin air-conditioning is complemented by 100 % recirculated air in the lower cabin and fresh air is used on the windshield when needed, which lowers misting and energy use. This improved air recirculation ratio in the whole vehicle reduces energy losses and power consumption – PTC heater power is reduced by 400W, which is equivalent to a reduction of 10gr/km in CO2 emissions.